Game The Godfather II Berdasarkan Film Legendaris

Video Game berdasarkan film legendaris ini dibuat oleh pengembang terkemuka Electronic Art, dengan elemen gameplay dari game asli tetap dipertahankan untuk sequel ini.

Mengambil setting waktu pada akhir 1950-an dengan lokasi di tiga kota, Havana, New York City, dan Miami. Disini Aldo Trapani, karakter pemain pada game pertama akan ditampilkan singkat sebagai bos dari karakter utama.

Salah satu fitur yang ditambahkan adalah kontorl ”Black Hand 2.0”, dimana pemain dapat mencengkeram, menendang dan menyundul musuh. Keunggulan lain game ini juga akan memfiturkan “Don’s View”, sebuah sudut pandang strategis di dunia game dimana pemain dapat memerintahkan anggota keluarga untuk melindungi atau mengembangkan daerah teritorialnya.

Dari sudut pandang ini, pemain juga akan mampu melihat perkembangan bisnis dalam game dan seberapa banyak musuh. Yang tidak kalah pentingnya adalah ditambahkanya kombinasi kontrol dan combo untuk menghajar lawan, mematahkan lengan dan mampu meninju dengan satu pukulan maut. Harga game ini adalah USD 4.99, untuk info lebih detail silahkan kunjungi http://www.ea.com/godfather2

XBOX

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History

The Xbox was Microsoft’s first product that ventured into the video game console market, after having collaborated with Sega in porting Windows CE to the Dreamcast console. The Xbox first edition was initially developed by a small Microsoft team, that included game developer Seamus Blackley. Microsoft repeatedly delayed the console, which was revealed at the end of 1999 following interviews of then-Microsoft CEO Bill Gates. Gates stated that a gaming/multimedia device was essential for multimedia convergence in the new times, confirmed by Microsoft with a press release.[4] A certain amount of excitement surrounded the announcement of Xbox. When Bill Gates unveiled it at the Game Developers Conference in 2000, audiences were dazzled by the console’s amazing technology. At the time that Gates made the announcement, Sega’s Dreamcast was diminishing and Sony’s PlayStation 2 was just hitting the streets in Japan.[5]

Microsoft made a few crucial errors at the launch of Xbox, most notably in its efforts to impress Japanese consumers. Seeing the importance of a good showing in Japan, Microsoft went hard after the Japanese market, delaying its European launch. Europe was unquestionably the more receptive market.[5] Two of the original members of the Xbox team, Seamus Blackley and Kevin Bachus, left the company early on. The other founding members, Otto Berkes and Ted Hase, are still with Microsoft, but no longer working on the Xbox project. But Microsoft has also made some brilliant moves. In preparation for its launch, Microsoft acquired Bungie and used Halo: Combat Evolved as its launch title. At the time, Goldeneye 007, for Nintendo 64, had been one of the very few hit FPS games to appear on a console, some of other ones being Perfect Dark and Medal of Honor. The Bungie acquisition proved itself, giving Microsoft a good application to drive its sales.[5] In 2002, Xbox reached one milestone that few people would have predicted when Microsoft overtook Nintendo to capture the second place slot in consoles sold in North America.

Notable launch games for the console included Dead or Alive 3, Amped: Freestyle Snowboarding, Halo: Combat Evolved, Fuzion Frenzy and Project Gotham Racing.

Xbox 360

Nvidia ceased production of the Xbox’s GPU in August 2005, which marked the end of Xbox production and the quick release of the Xbox 360 on November 22, 2005. The Xbox 360 enhances memory, audio, graphics, and gameplay as well as storage.

When equipped with a removable hard drive add-on, the Xbox 360 supports a limited number of the Xbox’s game library through emulation. Emulation adds support for anti-aliasing as well as upscaling of the still standard definition image. These emulators are periodically updated to add compatibility for older games and are available for free through Xbox Live or as a file download to be burned to a DVD-R from the Xbox web site. These updates are also available monthly as part of the demo disc that comes with each issue of Official Xbox Magazine. As the architectures are entirely different between Xbox and Xbox 360, software emulation is the only viable option for compatibility without including processors from the original Xbox.

Hardware

The Xbox was the first major console to incorporate a hard disk drive, used primarily for storing game saves compressed in ZIP archives and content downloaded from Xbox Live. This eliminated the need for separate memory cards (although some older consoles, such as the TurboGrafx-CD, Sega CD and Sega Saturn had featured built-in battery backup memory prior to 2007). An Xbox user could rip music from standard audio CDs to the hard drive, and these songs were used for the custom soundtracks in some games.[6]

The Xbox was the first product in the gaming industry to feature Dolby Interactive Content-Encoding Technology, which allows real-time Dolby Digital encoding in game consoles. Previous game consoles could only utilize Dolby Digital 5.1 during non-interactive “cut scene” playback.[7]

The Xbox is based on commodity PC hardware and is much larger and heavier than its contemporaries. This is largely due to a bulky tray-loading DVD-ROM drive and the standard-size 3.5 inch hard drive. However, the Xbox has also pioneered safety features, such as breakaway cables for the controllers to prevent the console from being pulled from the surface on which it resides.

The original game controller design, which was particularly large, was similarly often criticized since it was ill-suited to those with small hands and caused cramping in the hands of some users. In response to these criticisms, a smaller controller was introduced for the Japanese Xbox launch. This Japanese controller (which was briefly imported by even mainstream video game store chains such as GameStop) was subsequently released in other markets as the “Xbox Controller S”. In addition, all future Xbox consoles were shipped with a “Controller S”, while the original controller (known as Controller “0” or “The Duke”) was discontinued.[8]

Several internal hardware revisions have been made in an ongoing battle to discourage modding (hackers continually updated modchip designs in an attempt to defeat them), to cut manufacturing costs, and to provide a more reliable DVD-ROM drive (some of the early units’ drives gave Disc Reading Errors due to the unreliable Thomson DVD-ROM drives used). Later generations of Xbox units that used the Thomson TGM-600 DVD-ROM drives and the Philips VAD6011 DVD-ROM drives were still vulnerable to failure that rendered the consoles either unable to read newer discs or caused them to halt the console with an error code usually indicating a PIO/DMA identification failure, respectively. These units would not be covered under the extended warranty.

In 2002, Microsoft and Nvidia entered arbitration over a dispute on the pricing of Nvidia’s chips for the Xbox.[9] Nvidia’s filing with the SEC indicated that Microsoft was seeking a US$13 million discount on shipments for NVIDIA’s fiscal year 2002. Additionally, Microsoft alleged violations of the agreement the two companies entered, sought reduced chipset pricing, and sought to ensure that Nvidia fulfill Microsoft’s chipset orders without limits on quantity. The matter was settled on February 6, 2003, and no terms of the settlement were released.[10]

Launch-era Xbox gaming units were manufactured in Hungary, while the controllers were manufactured primarily in Indonesia.

Technical specifications

* CPU: 32-bit 733 MHz Custom Intel Coppermine-based processor in a Micro-PGA2 package. 180 nm process.[11]
o SSE floating point SIMD. Four single-precision floating point numbers per clock cycle.
o MMX integer SIMD
o 133 MHz 64-bit GTL+ front-side bus to GPU
o 32 KB L1 cache. 128 KB on-die L2 “Advanced Transfer Cache”
* Shared memory subsystem
o 64 MB DDR SDRAM at 200 MHz; 6.4 GB/s
o Supplied by Hynix or Samsung depending on manufacture date and location
* GPU and system chipset: 233 MHz “NV2A” ASIC. Co-developed by Microsoft and Nvidia.
o Geometry engine: 115 million vertices/second, 125 million particles/second (peak)
o 4 pixel pipelines with 2 texture units each
o 932 megapixels/second (233 MHz x 4 pipelines), 1,864 megatexels/second (932 MP×2 texture units) (peak)
+ Peak triangle performance (32pixel divided from filrate): 29,125,000 32-pixel triangles/s raw or w. 2 textures and lit.
# 485,416 triangles per frame at 60 frame/s
# 970,833 triangles per frame at 30 frame/s
o 8 textures per pass, texture compression, full scene anti-aliasing (NV Quincunx, supersampling, multisampling)
o Bilinear, trilinear, and anisotropic texture filtering
o Similar to the GeForce 3 and GeForce 4 PC GPUs
* Storage media
o 2×–5× (2.6 MB/s–6.6 MB/s) CAV DVD-ROM
o 8 or 10 GB, 3.5 in, 5,400 RPM hard disk. Formatted to 8 GB. FATX file system.
o Optional 8 MB memory card for saved game file transfer.
* Audio processor: NVIDIA “MCPX” (a.k.a. SoundStorm “NVAPU”)
o 64 3D sound channels (up to 256 stereo voices)
o HRTF Sensaura 3D enhancement
o MIDI DLS2 Support
o Monaural, Stereo, Dolby Surround, Dolby Digital Live 5.1, and DTS Surround (DVD movies only) audio output options
* Integrated 10/100BASE-TX wired ethernet
* DVD movie playback (Add-on required)
* A/V outputs: composite video, S-Video, component video, SCART, Digital Optical TOSLINK, and stereo RCA analog audio
* Resolutions: 480i, 480p, 576i, 576p, 720p, 1080i
* Controller ports: 4 proprietary USB 1.1 ports
* Weight: 3.86 kg (8.5 lb)
* Dimensions: 320×100×260 mm (12.5×4×10.5 in)

Accessories

The Xbox’s standard retail packages came with the following accessories:

* One controller (Duke or Controller S)
* One A/V cable
* One power cable
* One CAT5 Ethernet cable (some packages)
* One bundled game disc (some packages)

Controllers
The original Duke controller (left) and the Controller S (right).

The Xbox controller features two analog sticks, a pressure sensitive directional pad, two analog triggers, a Back button, a Start button, two accessory slots and six 8-bit analog action buttons (A/Green, B/Red, X/Blue, Y/Yellow, and Black and White buttons.)[12] The standard Xbox controller (also known as the “Duke” controller) was originally the Xbox controller for all territories except Japan. The Duke controller has been criticized for being relatively large and bulky compared to other video game controllers (it was awarded “Blunder of the Year” by Game Informer in 2001[13] and a Guinness World Record for the biggest controller in Guinness World Records Gamer’s Edition 2008). The Controller S, a smaller, lighter Xbox controller was originally the standard Xbox controller only in Japan (codenamed “Akebono”).[14] It was designed to be more comfortable for those with smaller hands.[15][16] The Controller S was released in other territories by popular demand, and eventually replaced the standard controller in the Xbox’s retail package, with the larger original controller available as an accessory.

Memory

An 8 MB removable solid state memory card can be plugged into the controllers, onto which game saves can either be copied from the hard drive when in the Xbox dashboard’s memory manager or saved during a game. Most Xbox games can be copied to the memory unit and to another console but some Xbox saves are digitally signed, each console has a unique signing key, and some games (e.g., Ninja Gaiden and Dead or Alive Xtreme Beach Volleyball) will not load saved games signed by a different Xbox, limiting the utility of the memory card. Additionally, game saves can be tagged as uncopyable, or simply padded to over 8 MB (Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic). The signing mechanism has been reverse-engineered by the Xbox hacking community, who have developed tools to modify savegames to work in a different console, though the signing key of the recipient Xbox (the ‘HDkey’), and the ramped-up title key of the game (the ‘authkey’), must be known. It is also possible to save an Xbox Live account on a memory unit, to simplify its use on more than one Xbox.

Cables

The Xbox includes a standard AV cable which provides composite video and monaural or stereo audio to TVs equipped with RCA inputs. European include an RCA jack to SCART converter block in addition to the cable. All Xbox consoles include a standard Ethernet cable (RJ-45 connection) for connecting to the internet for accessing Xbox Live.

System software

The Xbox runs a custom operating system which was once believed to be a modified version of the Windows 2000 kernel.[17] It exposes APIs similar to APIs found in Microsoft Windows, such as DirectX 8.1.

The user interface for the Xbox is called the Xbox Dashboard. It features a media player that can be used to play music CDs, rip CD’s to the Xbox’s built in hard drive, and play music that has been ripped to the hard drive. The Xbox Dashboard also has a memory management feature that lets users manage game saves, music, and downloaded content from Xbox LIVE. In addition, the Xbox Dashboard allows Xbox LIVE users sign in, and manage their account. The Xbox Dashboard is only available when the user is not watching a movie or playing a game. The Xbox Dashboard uses many shades of green and black for the user interface, in order to be consistent with the Xbox’s color scheme. When the Xbox was released in 2001, the LIVE service wasn’t released yet, so LIVE services could not be used.

Xbox LIVE was released in 2002, but in order to access it, the user would need to purchase the Xbox LIVE starter kit which includes a headset, a subscription, and the necessary software for the Xbox Dashboard. Throughout its history, the Xbox Dashboard has been updated via Xbox LIVE several times in order to reduce cheating and add new features.

Games

The Xbox launched in North America on November 15, 2001. The greatest success of the Xbox’s launch games was Halo: Combat Evolved which was well received by critics.[18] Its sequel, Halo 2, is the best-selling first-generation Xbox game worldwide.[3] Other successful launch titles included NFL Fever 2002,[19] Project Gotham Racing,[20] and Dead or Alive 3;[21] however, the failure of several first-party games (including Azurik: Rise of Perathia)[22] damaged the initial public reputation of the Xbox.

Although the console gained strong third party support from its inception, many early Xbox games did not fully use its powerful hardware, with few additional features or graphical improvements to distinguish them from the PS2 version, thus negating one of the Xbox’s main selling points. Additionally, Sony countered the Xbox for a short time by temporarily securing PlayStation 2 exclusives for highly anticipated games such as the Grand Theft Auto series and Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty.

In 2002 and 2003, several releases helped the Xbox to gain momentum and distinguish itself from the PS2. The Xbox Live online service was launched in late 2002 alongside pilot titles MotoGP, MechAssault and Tom Clancy’s Ghost Recon. Several best-selling and critically acclaimed titles for the Xbox were published, such as Tom Clancy’s Splinter Cell, Ninja Gaiden and LucasArts’ Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic. Take-Two Interactive’s exclusivity deal with Sony was amended to allow Grand Theft Auto III and its sequels to be published on the Xbox. In addition, many other publishers got into the trend of releasing the Xbox version alongside the PS2 version, instead of delaying it for months.

In 2004, Halo 2 set records as the highest-grossing release in entertainment history making over $125 million in its first day,[23] as well as being a successful killer app for the online service. That year, Microsoft and Electronic Arts reached a deal that would see the latter’s popular titles enabled on Xbox Live.

In August of 2008, Madden NFL 09 was released for the system, making it the last game made for the Xbox.

Xbox Live

On November 15, 2002, Microsoft launched its Xbox Live online gaming service, allowing subscribers to play online Xbox games with other subscribers all around the world and download new content for their games to the system’s hard drive. This online service works exclusively with a broadband Internet connection. Approximately 250,000 subscribers had signed up within two months of Xbox Live’s launch.[24] In July 2004, Microsoft announced that Xbox Live had reached one million subscribers, and a year later, in July 2005, that membership had reached two million. More recently, in July 2007 the membership had reached over 3 million, making it a popular gaming service.

Xbox modding
Xbox motherboard, with installed modchip

The popularity of the Xbox, as well as its relatively short 90 day warranty, inspired efforts to circumvent the built-in hardware and software security mechanisms, a practice informally known as modding. Within a few months of its release the Xbox BIOS was dumped and hacked by MIT student Andrew Huang so that it would skip digital signature checks and media flags, allowing unsigned code, Xbox game backups, etc., to be run. This was possible due to flaws in the Xbox’s security.[25][unreliable source?] Modding an Xbox in any manner will void its warranty, as it may require disassembly of the console. Having a modified Xbox may also disallow it from accessing Xbox Live if detected by Microsoft, as it contravenes the Xbox Live Terms of Use,[26] however most modchips can be disabled, allowing the Xbox to boot in a “stock” configuration, softmods can be disabled by “coldbooting” a game (having the game in the DVD drive before turning the console on, so the softmod is not loaded) or by using a multiboot configuration.

Four main methods exist of modding the Xbox:

* Modchip: installing a modchip inside the Xbox that bypasses the original BIOS, with a hacked BIOS to circumvent the security mechanisms.[27]
* TSOP flashing: reflashing the onboard BIOS chip with a hacked BIOS to circumvent the security mechanisms. The Xbox BIOS is contained on a commodity EEPROM (the ‘TSOP’), which can be made writable by the Xbox by bridging points on the motherboard.[28] Flashing is usually carried out by using a specially crafted gamesave (see ‘Game save exploit’, below) to flash the onboard TSOP, but the TSOP can also be de-soldered and re-written in a standard EEPROM programmer. This method only works on 1.0 to 1.5 Xboxes, as later versions replace the commodity TSOP with an LPC ROM contained within a proprietary chip.[29]
* Softmods: installing additional software files to the Xbox hard drive, which exploit programming errors in the Dashboard to gain control of the system, and overwrite the in-memory copy of the BIOS.[30] Soft modification is known to be safe for Xbox Live if the user enables multibooting with the Microsoft dashboard and an original game disc is used.[citation needed]
o Game save exploit: using select official game releases to load game saves that exploit buffer overflows in the save game handling.[31] When these special game saves are loaded, they access an interface with scripts for installing the necessary softmod files. Disassembly of the Xbox is not required when installing most game save exploits.
o Hot swapping: using a computer to change the data on the hard drive. This requires having the Xbox unlock the hard drive when it is turned on, then swapping the powered hard drive into a running computer. By using a Linux-based Live CD, data on the hard drive can be read, altered, and deleted. In most cases, an automated script will automatically install the softmod files directly to the Xbox hard drive. This technique has been used extensively to harbor cheating on many online games. Disassembly of the console is required to perform a hot swap.

Tomb Raider

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Tomb Raider is a video game developed by Core Design and published by Eidos Interactive. It was originally released in 1996 for the Sega Saturn followed shortly thereafter for MS-DOS and PlayStation versions. Tomb Raider was also released into the mobile gaming market, for Windows Mobile Professional in 2002 and the Nokia N-Gage in 2003. Tomb Raider follows the exploits of Lara Croft, an English female archaeologist in search of ancient treasures à la Indiana Jones. The game was a big commercial success, received critical acclaim and has been widely influential.[1] It spawned a number of sequels and a franchise of related media.

Story

Plot
In Tomb Raider, Lara Croft hunts for pieces of a talisman called the Scion, the first of which is found in the Tomb of Qualopec, Peru.

The story opens with a prologue in Los Alamos County, New Mexico. A nuclear test causes an earthquake which exposes an ancient device buried beneath the desert. The device is set into motion and reveals a frozen lifeform. The story then continues in the present day.

After Lara Croft returns from an expedition in the Himalayas she is contacted by an American named Larson, who works for the wealthy businesswoman Jacqueline Natla, owner of Natla Technologies. At Natla’s request, Lara sets out on an expedition to recover a mysterious artefact called the Scion from the lost tomb of Qualopec, in the mountains of Peru. However after successfully retrieving the object, she is nearly robbed of it when Larson attempts to kill her outside the tomb. Wasting no time, Lara sets out to discover why Natla double-crossed her, and breaks into her office to find out more about the truth behind the artefact, of which there appears to be more than one piece. She discovers a medieval manuscript which reveals the whereabouts of a second piece of the Scion, which is buried beneath an ancient monastery of St. Francis in Greece. It appears Natla has sent Pierre Dupont, a rival French archaeologist, to recover the fragment from the site. Hot on each others trail, Lara and Pierre race each other through the catacombs of the monastery to get to the second Scion first. The battle comes to a head at the tomb of Tihocan, where Lara recovers the second Scion and finally kills Pierre Dupont. An inscription inside the tomb reveals that Tihocan was one of three joint rulers of Atlantis. At some point a calamity struck which sunk the continent into the ocean and scattered their culture over the world. Qualopec continued to rule in South America, Tihocan in Greece, and it appears a third ruler thrived in Egypt.

Lara travels to the Valley of the Kings where she quickly discovers the third Scion, and is faced with Larson one last time. Upon leaving the tomb however, she is awaited by Natla and her henchmen, who steal the three artefacts from her and nearly kill her. Lara escapes and follows their trail to a remote island, where mining operations of Natla Technologies have partially exposed the Great Pyramid of Atlantis. After making her way through the mines dispatching Natla’s goons, Lara reaches the heart of the pyramid chamber, where the three Scions are fused together as a source of power. In a flashback, it is revealed that Natla was the third ruler of Atlantis, and that she betrayed her co-rulers by abusing the power of the Scion amulet for genetic experimentation. As punishment, she was locked into a stasis cell by Qualopec and Tihocan, and buried beneath the ground. The power released by the pyramid and the Scion caused a major cataclysm destroying the once powerful and advanced civilization. As a result (similar to Easter Island) the survivors lost all their knowledge and power, and had to slowly rebuild from the ground up. Centuries later Natla awoke when the cell was exposed by an atomic bomb testing in Los Alamos during the 1940s. With her cunning and knowledge she quickly became incredibly rich and powerful around the world.

Having regained the power of the artefacts, Natla attempts to restore her former power with an army of genetic mutants. However, Lara manages to destroy the Scion and defeats Natla. The pyramid is destroyed along with the mutants, and the remains of the Atlantean civilization.

Gameplay

[edit] Overview
Lara in her attack stance, with pistols drawn. St. Francis’ Folly, Greece.

In Tomb Raider, the player controls the female archaeologist Lara Croft, in search for the three mysterious Scion artefacts across the world. The game is presented in third person perspective. Lara is always visible and the camera follows the action from behind or over her shoulder. The world she inhabits is fully drawn in three dimensions and characterized by its cubic nature. Ledges, walls and ceilings sit at 90 degrees to each other, although the game designers sometimes obscure this to make it less obvious.

The object of Tomb Raider is to guide Lara through a series of tombs and other locations in search of treasures and artefacts. On the way, she must kill dangerous animals and other creatures, while collecting objects and solving puzzles to gain access to an ultimate prize, usually a powerful artefact. Gunplay is restricted to the killing of various animals that appear throughout each stage, although occasionally Lara may be faced with a human opponent. Instead the emphasis lies on solving puzzles and performing trick jumps to complete each level. As such, Tomb Raider in essence harkens back to the classical form of platform style gameplay.[2][3]

Features
City of Vilcabamba, Peru.

Movement in the game is varied and allows for complex interactions with the environment. Besides walking, running, and jumping, Lara can perform side-steps, hang on ledges, roll over, dive, and swim through water. In a free environment, Lara has two basic stances: one with weapons drawn and one with her hands free. By default she carries two pistols with infinite ammo. Additional weapons include the shotgun, dual magnums and dual Uzis. At a certain point in the story, Lara will be stripped of all her weapons, leaving the player defenceless and forced to recover her pistols, a development which later became a staple of the series.

Numerous enemies as well as a variety of lethal traps can bring about Lara’s death in Tomb Raider, the most important threat of which is falling to death. As the game adopts a platform style approach of progress, well timed jumps must often bring Lara safely to the other side of a ledge or she will plummet to the ground below. Other means by which the game will prematurely end include death by burning, drowning, electrocution, becoming impaled on spikes, being shot, being crushed, lethal damage from animals, human enemies, or creatures and even being turned into gold.
Key items found throughout the game.

A general action button is used to perform a wide range of movements in Tomb Raider, such as picking up items, pulling switches, firing guns, pushing or pulling blocks, and grabbing onto ledges. Regular items to pick up include ammo, and small and large medipacks. Game-specific items are keys and artefacts required to complete a stage. Any item that is collected is held onto in Lara’s inventory until it is used.

The puzzles that the player encounters across each level vary: pulling specific combinations of levers, a course of timed jumps, avoiding a certain trap or collecting several keystones.

Throughout each stage, one or more secrets may be located. Discovering these secrets is optional, and when the player has found one a tune plays. The locations of these secrets vary in difficulty to reach. Some are hidden along the roadside in bushes, others require the completion of a hidden course or optional puzzle to be found. The player is usually rewarded with extra items.

In the PlayStation and Sega Saturn versions of Tomb Raider, saving the game is restricted to fixed save points within each level, marked by a floating blue crystal. When Lara touches one of these the option to save is made available. The scarcity of these points, however, means that if the player dies, large portions of each level must be replayed, much to the players’ frustration. Following criticism on this system, Core implemented a save anywhere at any time feature in Tomb Raider II.[4] The DOS and Mac versions of the game allow the player to save at any time.

A stage is finished when a certain doorway is reached, an artefact is recovered, or a boss is destroyed.

Development history

Preliminary work on Tomb Raider commenced in 1993, but it was not until November 1996 that the game actually saw the light of day as a retail product.[5] The title was crafted by Core Design of Derby, England, who took 18 months to develop it.[6] The team consisted of six people, among them Toby Gard, who is credited with the creation of Lara Croft.[7] The character went through several changes before Core settled on the version she became famous for. In its earliest conception, Lara Croft was a male placeholder for an as yet undefined character, but as Core decided that puzzles and stealth should be more important to the game than action, they found that these requirements better suited a female character than a classic male action hero.[8]

As such Lara was born under the name Laura Cruz.[7] “Laura” was later dropped in favour of Lara, to appeal more to American audiences. At the same time, her backstory started to shape up and it was decided she should become more English, hence Cruz was changed to Croft to accommodate this.[7] Personality-wise, Lara was a cold-blooded militaristic type in the early concepts.[9] According to Toby Gard, the idea to make her a female Indiana Jones was not present from the beginning, but rather grew naturally out of the development process as the game took its final form.[5]

The front of the Derby Studios building where Core Design worked on the game was later used as the front of Croft Manor.

It is Core’s contention that the company was struggling somewhat with 32-bit development at that time.[5] The first glints of the game were seen on Sega Saturn development kits. However, ultimately, it would be the PlayStation rendition that would be known best.[5]

Tomb Raider was released for DOS, Macintosh, Nokia N-Gage, Pocket PC, and the PlayStation and Sega Saturn game consoles. Saving methods are different – on the DOS and Macintosh versions, the player can save anywhere, while on the PlayStation and Sega Saturn versions the player is required to find Save Crystals to save. The DOS version also does not include the additional incidental music during gameplay. The PlayStation & Sega Saturn version only have one kind of ambience, while the PC has four different ambient tracks.

The Greatest Hits edition of the PlayStation version had extra demos and videos of other Eidos games. The early version contained demos for Tomb Raider II and Fighting Force. The next print contained Legacy of Kain: Soul Reaver, Tomb Raider III, and Gex 3: Deep Cover Gecko with videos of Fear Effect and Fighting Force 2. Yet another edition included no playable demos, but rather a trailer for the Chicken Run video game and a viewable preview of the (at the time) upcoming PlayStation 2 game TimeSplitters.

Windows 2000, Windows XP and Vista do not share Windows 9x’s full direct hardware DOS support and attempting to run the game from the CD results in a DOS Box flash and then nothing. Solutions to this problem can be found from sites such as TombRaiderChronicles.com

The Legend Of Zelda

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The Legend of Zelda (??????, Zeruda no Densetsu?) is an action-adventure video game series created by game designers Shigeru Miyamoto and Takashi Tezuka and developed and published by Nintendo. The gameplay consists of a mixture of action, adventure, puzzle solving, and role-playing. The series centers on Link, the main playable character and protagonist. Link is often given the task of rescuing Princess Zelda and the most common setting of the series, Hyrule, from Ganon who is the primary antagonist of the series. However, other settings and antagonists have appeared throughout the games, with Vaati having recently become the series’ secondary antagonist. The story commonly involves a relic known as the Triforce, a set of three golden triangles of omnipotence. The protagonist in each game is not always the same iteration of Link, although the same character sometimes appears across multiple games.

The Legend of Zelda series has sold over 52 million copies since the release of the first game, The Legend of Zelda,[1] and continues to be successful worldwide. The series consists of fourteen official games on all of Nintendo’s major consoles, as well as several spin-offs. An animated series based on the games aired in 1989, and individual manga adaptions which are officially endorsed and commissioned by Nintendo have been produced in Japan since 1997.

Overview

Gameplay

The Legend of Zelda games feature a mixture of puzzles, strategic action, adventure/battle gameplay, and exploration. These elements have remained constant throughout the series, but with refinements and additions featured in each new game. The player is frequently rewarded for solving puzzles or exploring areas. Most Zelda games involve locating and exploring dungeons, in which puzzles are solved and enemies fought, then defeating the dungeon’s boss. Each dungeon usually has one major item inside, which is usually essential for solving many of the puzzles in that dungeon and often plays a crucial role in defeating that dungeon’s boss. Some items are consistent and appear many times throughout the series, while others are unique to a single game. The series also consists of stealth gameplay, where the player must avoid enemies while proceeding through a level, as well as racing elements.

Chronology

The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past is a prequel to The Legend of Zelda and Zelda II: The Adventure of Link, the first two games released in the series. The back of its packaging states it takes place before The Legend of Zelda. Ocarina of Time is also a prequel, going even further back and implicitly retelling the backstory of A Link to the Past.[2] The Legend of Zelda: Majora’s Mask has been cited by Nintendo as the direct sequel to Ocarina of Time. The Wind Waker takes place hundreds of years after the events of Ocarina of Time.[3] The game explicitly references the “Hero of Time” from that game, and states that, due to the hero’s absence, it was necessary to flood Hyrule to stop Ganon. The Minish Cap, Four Swords and Four Swords Adventures include references to other titles and are known to be a part of the timeline, but their exact relationships with other games have not officially been made clear.[4]

In an interview conducted by Nintendo Dream with Eiji Aonuma in December 2006, it was revealed that there are two parallel universes in the Zelda chronology. The timeline is split at the end of Ocarina of Time, when Link is sent back in time by Princess Zelda to live through his childhood, while the original events of Ocarina of Time continue on a different path. Once returned to his original time, Link leaves the Master Sword in its place, preventing Ganondorf’s plan from coming to fruition, and goes to see Zelda again, resulting in the “Child Timeline” in which the villain Ganondorf is arrested and tried by the ancient sages. They attempt to execute him, but he overpowers them, and the sages are instead forced to banish him to the Twilight Realm. Twilight Princess then occurs over one hundred years later, after Link’s role as a child in the events of Ocarina of Time and Majora’s Mask. Meanwhile, The Wind Waker occurs in the “Adult Timeline”, after the Hero of Time saved Hyrule in Ocarina of Time, and it is directly followed by Phantom Hourglass.[5][6]

Inspiration

The Legend of Zelda was principally inspired by Shigeru Miyamoto’s explorations as a young boy in the hillsides surrounding his childhood home in Kyoto,[7] where he ventured into forests with secluded lakes, caves, and rural villages. According to Miyamoto, one of his most memorable experiences was the discovery of a cave entrance in the middle of the woods. After some hesitation, he apprehensively entered the cave, and explored its depths with the aid of a lantern. This memory has clearly influenced Miyamoto’s work, as cave exploration is a major component of most Zelda games (often by the light of a lantern). Miyamoto has referred to the creation of the Zelda games as an attempt to bring to life a “miniature garden” for players to play with in each game of the series.[8]

Hearing of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s wife Zelda, Miyamoto thought the name sounded “pleasant and significant”.[9] Paying tribute, he chose to name the Princess after her, and titled his creation The Legend of Zelda.

History

The Legend of Zelda on the Nintendo Entertainment System console

The Legend of Zelda, the first game of the series, was first released in Japan on February 21, 1986 on the Famicom Disk System. A cartridge version, using battery-backed memory, was released in the United States on August 22, 1987 and Europe in 1987. The game features a “Second Quest”, accessible on completing the game, in which dungeons and item placement are different, and enemies are more difficult for the player to defeat.[10] In 1994, near the end of the Famicom’s lifespan, the game was rereleased in cartridge format.[11] A modified version, BS Zelda no Densetsu, was released for the Super Famicom’s satellite-based expansion, Satellaview, in the mid-1990s in Japan. BS Zelda was rereleased for the Satellaview a year later, with rearranged dungeons and an altered overworld.

The second game, Zelda II: The Adventure of Link, was released for the Famicom Disk System in Japan in January 1987, and for the Nintendo Entertainment System in Europe in November 1988 and North America in December 1988. The game exchanged the top-down perspective for side-scrolling (though the top-down point of view was retained for overworld areas), and introduced RPG elements (such as experience points) not used in The Legend of Zelda. The Legend of Zelda and Zelda II were released in gold-colored game cartridges instead of the console’s regular gray cartridges. Both were rereleased in the final years of the Nintendo Entertainment System with gray cartridges.

Four years later, The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past returned to the top-down view (under a 3/4 perspective), and added the concept of an alternate dimension, the Dark World. The game was released for the SNES in 1991. It was later rereleased for the Game Boy Advance on December 9, 2002 in North America, on a cartridge with Four Swords, the first multiplayer Zelda, and then through Nintendo’s Virtual Console service on January 22, 2007. In addition, both this game (unchanged, except for being converted into a downloadable format)[12] and an exclusive “loosely-based” sequel (which used the same game engine) called BS Zelda no Densetsu Kodai no Sekiban were released on the Satellaview in Japan.
Link in the opening cut scene of Link’s Awakening DX

The next game, Link’s Awakening, is the first Zelda for Nintendo’s Game Boy handheld, and the first set outside Hyrule and to exclude Princess Zelda. It was rereleased, in full colour, as a launch title for the Game Boy Color in 1998 as Link’s Awakening DX with some additional features, including an extra color-based dungeon and a photo shop that allows interaction with the Game Boy Printer.

After another hiatus, the series made the transition to 3D with Ocarina of Time for the Nintendo 64, which was released in November 1998. This game, initially known as Zelda 64, retains the core gameplay of the previous 2D games, and was very successful commercially and critically. It ranks highly on IGN and EGM’s “greatest games of all time” lists, and scored perfect scores in several video game publications.[13] In February 2006, it was ranked by Nintendo Power as the best game released for a Nintendo console.[14] The game was originally developed for the poorly-selling, Japanese-only Nintendo 64DD, but was ported to cartridge format when the 64DD hardware was delayed.[15] A new gameplay mechanic, lock-on targeting, is used in the game, which focuses the camera on a nearby target and alters the player’s actions relative to that target.[16] Such mechanics allow precise sword fighting in a 3D space. Those who preordered the game received a gold-colored cartridge in a limited edition box with a golden plastic card affixed, reading “Collector’s Edition”.[17]
Ocarina of Time, the first 3D-styled game of the franchise

Ocarina of Time was rereleased on the Nintendo GameCube in 2002, when it was offered as a pre-order incentive for The Wind Waker in the U.S., Canada and Japan.[18] Europe continues to receive it free in every copy of The Wind Waker, except for the discounted Player’s Choice version. It includes a previously unreleased 64DD expansion known as Ura Zelda in Japan and Ocarina of Time Master Quest in North America.[18] Ocarina of Time was included as part of Collector’s Edition for the GameCube in 2003.[19] It is now available through the Wii’s Virtual Console service.[20]

Ocarina of Time’s follow-up, Majora’s Mask, was released in November 2000. It uses the same 3D game engine as the previous game,[21] and added a time-based concept, in which Link, the protagonist, relives the events of three days as many times as needed to complete the game’s objectives. It was originally called Zelda Gaiden,[22] a Japanese title that translates as Zelda Side story. Gameplay changed significantly; in addition to the time-limit, Link can use masks to transform into creatures with unique abilities. While Majora’s Mask retains the graphical style of Ocarina of Time, it is also a departure, particularly in its atmosphere. It also features motion-blur, unlike its predecessor. The game is darker,[21] dealing with death and tragedy in a manner not previously seen in the series, and has a sense of impending doom, as a large moon slowly descends upon the land of Termina. All copies of Majora’s Mask are gold cartridges. A “Limited Collector’s Edition” lenticular cartridge label was offered as the pre-order incentive. Copies of the game that were not collector’s editions featured a regular sticker cartridge label. Majora’s Mask is now available on the Virtual Console.

The next two games, Oracle of Seasons and Oracle of Ages, were released simultaneously for the Game Boy Color, and interact using passwords[23] or a Game Link Cable.[24] After one game has been completed, the player is given a password that allows the other game to be played as a sequel.[23] They were developed by Flagship in conjunction with Nintendo, with supervision from Miyamoto. After the team experimented with porting the original The Legend of Zelda to the Game Boy Color, they decided to make an original trilogy[25] to be called the “Triforce Series”.[26] When the password system linking the three games proved too troublesome, the concept was reduced to two games at Miyamoto’s suggestion.[27] These two games became Oracle of Ages, which is more puzzle-based, and Oracle of Seasons, which is more action-oriented.[28] ?
The cel-shaded art-style of The Wind Waker

When Nintendo revealed the Nintendo GameCube on August 24, 2000, the day before Nintendo’s SpaceWorld 2000 exposition,[29] a software demonstration showed a realistically-styled real-time duel between Ganondorf and Link. Fans and the media speculated that the battle might be from a Zelda game in development.[30] At Spaceworld 2001 Nintendo showed a cel-shaded Zelda title, later released as The Wind Waker, which Miyamoto felt would “extend Zelda’s reach to all ages”.[31] The media reported that Zelda was shifting to a younger audience, to Miyamoto’s surprise.[32] Nothing further was shown until a playable demonstration was ready, which was well-received. The gameplay centers on controlling wind with a baton called the “Wind Waker” and sailing a small boat around an island-filled ocean, retaining similar gameplay mechanics as the previous 3D games in the series.

The next game released in the series was Four Swords Adventures for the GameCube, which was released in early 2004 in Japan and America, and January 2005 in Europe. Based on the handheld Four Swords, Four Swords Adventures was another deviation from previous Zelda gameplay, focusing on level-based and multiplayer gameplay. The game contains 24 levels and a map screen; there is no connecting overworld. For multiplayer features, each player must use a Game Boy Advance system linked to the Nintendo GameCube via a Nintendo GameCube Game Boy Advance cable. The game also features a single-player campaign, in which using a Game Boy Advance is optional.

Four Swords Adventures includes two gameplay modes: “Hyrulean Adventure”, with a plot and gameplay similar to other Zelda games, and “Shadow Battle”, in which multiple Links, played by multiple players, battle each other. The Japanese version includes an exclusive third segment, “Navi Trackers” (originally designed as the stand-alone game “Tetra’s Trackers”), which contains spoken dialog for most of the characters, unlike other games in The Legend of Zelda series.
An official Twilight Princess illustration

In November 2004 in Japan and Europe, and January 2005 in America, Nintendo released The Minish Cap for the Game Boy Advance. In The Minish Cap Link can shrink in size using a mystical, sentient hat named Ezlo. While shrunk, he can see previously-explored parts of a dungeon from a different perspective, and enter areas through otherwise-impassable openings.

In November 2006, Twilight Princess was released as the first Zelda game on the Wii, and later, in December 2006, on the Nintendo GameCube, the console for which it was originally developed. The Wii version features a reversed world; everything that is in the west on the GameCube is in the east on the Wii, and vice versa (The game was mirrored in order to make Link right-handed to make use of the Wii remote feel more natural). The game chronicles the struggle of an older Link to rid Hyrule of the “Twilight Realm”, a mysterious force consuming the land. When he enters this realm, he is transformed into a wolf, changing the gameplay. Twilight Princess also features horseback transportation and mounted battle scenarios, including boss battles.

At the 2006 Game Developers Conference, a trailer for Phantom Hourglass for the Nintendo DS was shown. It revealed traditional top-down Zelda gameplay optimized for the DS’ features, with a cel-shaded graphical style similar to The Wind Waker. At E3 2006, Nintendo confirmed the game’s status as a direct sequel to The Wind Waker,[33] and released an extensive playable demo, including a multiplayer mode with “capture the flag” elements. Phantom Hourglass was released on June 23, 2007 in Japan, October 1, 2007 in North America and October 19, 2007 in Europe.

The next Legend of Zelda for the DS, The Legend of Zelda: Spirit Tracks (tentative title), was confirmed to be in development at GDC ’09 by Satoru Iwata. It is slated for release later in 2009.

Shigeru Miyamoto officially confirmed that a new Zelda game is in development for the Wii during E3 2008.[34] He reiterated his announcement during E3 2009, noting that game will include Wii MotionPlus support (perhaps mandatorily, depending on how Wii Sports Resort fares in sales), and stated that the game will be released sometime after 2009.[35] Leaked concept art for said game shows Link appearing much how he does in Twilight Princess, but noticeably without a sword. In the same image, a ghostly girl that resembles the Queen of Fairies from The Wind Waker is standing beside him. Fans have noticed that the girl wears a dress that resembles the hilt of the Master Sword, along with several other features that come close to the Master Sword’s design.[36]

The Gran Theft Auto

grand-theft-auto-san-andreas-20050607061911196_screen001
Overview

The games allow people to take on the role of a criminal in a big city, typically an individual who rises through the ranks of organized crime through the course of the game. Various missions are set for completion by the figureheads of the city underworld, generally criminal, which must be completed to progress through the storyline. Assassinations, and other crimes feature regularly, but occasionally taxi driving, firefighting, pimping, street racing, or learning to fly fixed-wing aircraft are also involved as alternate adventures, which can be done at any time during the game, with the exception of the periods performing main missions.

In later titles, notably those released after Grand Theft Auto 2, the player is given a more developed storyline, in which they are forced to overcome an unfortunate event (e.g. being betrayed and left for dead), which serves as motivation for the character to advance in the criminal ladder and eventually leads to the triumph of the character by the end of the storyline; specific examples of this are the plots for Grand Theft Auto III and Grand Theft Auto: Vice City.

The Grand Theft Auto series, belonging to a genre of free-roaming video games called “sandbox games,” grants a large amount of freedom to the player in deciding what to do and how to do it through multiple methods of transport and weapons. Unlike most traditional action games, which are structured as a single track series of levels with linear gameplay, in GTA the player can determine the missions they want to undertake, and their relationships with various characters are changed based on these choices. The cities of the games can also be roamed freely at any point in the game, offering many accessible buildings and minor missions. There are exceptions: missions follow a linear, overarching plot, and some city areas must be unlocked over the course of the game.

Grand Theft Auto III and subsequent games have more prevalent voice acting, and radio stations, which simulate driving to music with disc jockeys, radio personalities, commercials, talk radio, pop music, and American culture.

The use of vehicles in an explorable urban environment provides a basic simulation of a working city, complete with pedestrians who generally obey traffic signals. Further details are used to flesh out an open-ended atmosphere that has been used in several other games, such as The Simpsons Hit & Run, which has less emphasis on crime or violence.

History

The Grand Theft Auto series may be divided into canons, based on the inclusion of a numbering after the recognizable title name (e.g. Grand Theft Auto III) after the original Grand Theft Auto’s release, and to a certain extent, the type of graphics engine used.
The original Grand Theft Auto

Grand Theft Auto
Main articles: Grand Theft Auto (video game) and Grand Theft Auto: London

Grand Theft Auto, the first game in the Grand Theft Auto series, was released on Windows PCs in 1997/1998 and also for PlayStation .[1] The game is set in three different fictional cities, Liberty City, San Andreas and Vice City. A reduced Game Boy Color port was later released.

Subsequently, two expansion packs were offered, both under the name of Grand Theft Auto: London. Although the concept of eras was not formally implemented until Grand Theft Auto III, it can be inferred that Grand Theft Auto: London, 1961, the second of the expansion packs, is the last game of the first Grand Theft Auto era canon.
Grand Theft Auto 2
Main article: Grand Theft Auto 2

The fourth game in the series, Grand Theft Auto 2, was developed for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation and Dreamcast and released in 1999. Set in the indeterminable future,[2] it featured updated graphics and somewhat different gameplay based upon the player’s appeal to various criminal organizations.

A reduced Game Boy Color port was also produced. Unlike the other games of the Grand Theft Auto series, Grand Theft Auto 2 was the only game released in its era. It is also the only game to have a “T” rating. It is also the only sequel to have a digit in the title instead of a Roman numeral.

Grand Theft Auto III
Main articles: Grand Theft Auto III, Grand Theft Auto: Vice City, Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, Grand Theft Auto Advance, Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories, and Grand Theft Auto: Vice City Stories

Grand Theft Auto III was released in October 2001, and served as the breakthrough for the franchise.[3] The game’s setting takes place around that time,[4] in fictional Liberty City, which is loosely based on New York City, but also incorporates elements of other American cities.[5] Grand Theft Auto III brought a third-person view to the series, rather than the traditional top-down view of earlier titles (although the view is still made available as an optional camera angle). For the first time, the problem of navigating in the huge sandbox game was solved by implementing a constant GPS triggered mini-map that highlights the player’s position as well as those of current targets. Graphics were also updated with a new 3D game engine. The gameplay engine expanded the explorable world of GTA III, using a mission-based approach. Multiplayer was discarded (third party mods were later released, allowing for multiplayer gameplay), but GTA III improved in many other areas such as voice-acting and plot (in previous games, there was speech only in short animated cut scenes between levels, while other communication was simply subtitles running on the bottom of the screen).

After the success of Grand Theft Auto III, Grand Theft Auto: Vice City was released in 2002. This game was set in 1986 in Vice City, which was based on Miami. The game’s plot focuses on the cocaine trade during the 1980s. Vice City was the first game to introduce fully functional flying vehicles that could be used by the player, such as sea planes and helicopters. It also featured a variety of new weapons and vehicles.

Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, released in October 2004, is set in 1992, focusing on California gang life and the awakening of the drug epidemic brought on by crack cocaine. The setting was in the fictional state of San Andreas, which was based on some California and Nevada cities, specifically Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Las Vegas. Their counterparts are Los Santos, San Fierro, and Las Venturas respectively. The game also included a countryside in between Los Santos and San Fierro and also between Los Santos and Las Venturas, and a desert in between Las Venturas and San Fierro.

Grand Theft Auto Advance, for the Game Boy Advance, was also released in 2004. Originally developed as a top-down conversion of GTA III, became an original game. Unlike the Game Boy Color ports of Grand Theft Auto and Grand Theft Auto 2, Grand Theft Auto Advance did not tone down the violence and profanity common to the GTA series. The game received an “M” rating from the ESRB. It was developed by an external developer, Digital Eclipse.

In 2005 and 2006, Rockstar released two games for the PlayStation Portable, both developed by Rockstar Leeds. Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories is a prequel to Grand Theft Auto III and set in Liberty City in 1998. A PlayStation 2 port was released by Rockstar on 6 June 2006.

Grand Theft Auto: Vice City Stories was released for the PlayStation Portable on 31 October 2006 and set in Vice City in 1984, two years before the events of Grand Theft Auto: Vice City. A PlayStation 2 port of the game was released on 6 March 2007. It is the last instalment of the third generation series, and the final game in the Grand Theft Auto III canon.

Grand Theft Auto IV
Main articles: Grand Theft Auto IV, Grand Theft Auto IV: The Lost and Damned, Grand Theft Auto: The Ballad of Gay Tony, and Grand Theft Auto: Chinatown Wars

Grand Theft Auto IV was released on 29 April 2008, after a six month delay.[6] It was the first Grand Theft Auto game to be released simultaneously for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 consoles. In August 2008, Rockstar announced that it was going to publish GTA IV for PC. GTA IV’s game engine is the Rockstar Advanced Game Engine (also known as RAGE) used in Rockstar Games presents Table Tennis and the Euphoria physics engine. The game once again takes place in a redesigned Liberty City that very closely resembles New York City, much more than previous renditions.[7]

Microsoft officially announced a “strategic alliance” with Rockstar Games over the rights to episodic content through their Xbox Live service at their X06 event. This content was released as Grand Theft Auto IV: The Lost and Damned on 17 February 2009, and it is available for download, exclusively for the Xbox 360. The expansion adds some new elements to the existing game and focuses on Johnny Klebitz, the vice president of “The Lost” motorcycle gang. The second Grand Theft Auto IV Downloadable Content will be called The Ballad of Gay Tony [8].

Grand Theft Auto: Chinatown Wars is the first Grand Theft Auto game to be released on the Nintendo DS, and was announced at the E3 Nintendo Press Conference on July 15, 2008. This game has several new features, such as touch screen mini-games. The game was released on 17 March 2009 in North America and 20 March 2009 to Australia and Europe. The game is rated 18+ by PEGI and the BBFC (Europe, UK) and M by the ESRB (North America).

Sonic

Sonic_large
Sonic the Hedgehog (????·?·??????, Sonikku za Hejjihoggu?), trademarked Sonic The Hedgehog,[2] is a video game character and the protagonist of the eponymous video game series released by Sega, as well as in numerous spin-off comics, cartoons and books. The first game in the franchise was released on June 23, 1991, in order to provide Sega with a mascot to rival Nintendo’s flagship character Mario (see 1991 in video gaming).[3][4] Since then, Sonic has become one of the world’s best-known video game characters, with his series having sold 50 million copies.[5] In 2005, Sonic was one of the first game character inductees into the Walk of Game, alongside Mario and Link.[6]

Artist Naoto Oshima, designer Hirokazu Yasuhara and programmer Yuji Naka are generally credited with the creation of the character,[7] a blue-haired, mostly blue-skinned 15-year-old anthropomorphic hedgehog, who has the ability to run faster than the speed of sound[8] and the ability to curl up into a ball, primarily to attack enemies. This is a major part of the gameplay of the series.

Conception and creation
Sonic’s original design from Sonic the Hedgehog (1991).

Sega wanted a game capable of selling over one million copies and a character to replace Alex Kidd as the company’s mascot. Several character designs were submitted by its AM8 research & development department, including an armadillo (which then developed into Mighty the Armadillo), a dog, a Theodore Roosevelt look-alike in pajamas (which would later be the basis of Eggman’s design), and a rabbit (intended to use its extendible ears to collect objects; these aspects were later incorporated into Ristar).[9][10] Eventually, Naoto Oshima’s spiky teal hedgehog, initially codenamed “Mr Needlemouse”,[3] was chosen as the new mascot. Sonic’s blue pigmentation was chosen to match Sega’s blue logo, his shoes were a concept evolved from a design inspired by Michael Jackson’s boots with the addition of the color red, which was inspired by Santa Claus and his personality was based on Bill Clinton’s fast reaction to trouble.[9] The character was created without the ability to swim because of a mistaken assumption by Yuji Naka that all hedgehogs couldn’t.[11] A group of fifteen people started working on Sonic the Hedgehog, and renamed themselves Sonic Team. The game’s soundtrack was composed by Masato Nakamura of the band Dreams Come True. Sega sponsored the group’s “Wonder 3” tour, painting Sonic on the tour bus, distributing pamphlets advertising the game, and having footage of the game broadcast above stage prior to its release.[12]

The original concepts had Sonic with fangs and in a band with a human girlfriend named Madonna, however Sega of America “softened” the character up for an American audience by removing these, sparking a heated issue with Sonic Team, although Naka later admitted it was probably for the best.[9] Sonic’s appearance varies greatly depending on the medium and the style in which he is drawn. In the video games, Sonic’s original design by Oshima was quite short and round, with short quills, a round body and no visible irises (see artwork at left). Artwork featuring this design and drawn by Akira Watanabe[13] was displayed on the package artwork for Sonic the Hedgehog, and most subsequent Sonic video games featured similar designs.

When Sonic the Hedgehog 2 for the Mega Drive appeared, Sonic’s proportions changed. The original 1:2 head to height ratio became 1:2.5.[14]

Beginning with Sonic Adventure in 1998, Sonic was redesigned by Yuji Uekawa as a taller character with longer legs and a less spherical body, longer and more drooping quills, the addition of shoe buckles, and green-colored irises. Further subtle changes to the character’s design have been made in subsequent games. Spin-off media such as comics and cartoons have featured variations on all these video game designs, with restrictions set by the standardized model sheets.[15]

Actor portrayal

Quite a number of different actors have provided the voice for Sonic in his game appearances. Sonic’s first voice actor was Takeshi Kusao for SegaSonic the Hedgehog, with Junichi Kanemaru continually voicing the role beginning with the release of Sonic Adventure. Sonic’s first English game voice was provided by Ryan Drummond beginning with Sonic Adventure, a role he continued until 2004,[16] when he was replaced by Jason Anthony Griffith, who previously voiced the character in the American dub of the anime series Sonic X.[17]

Appearances

Video games
See also: Sonic the Hedgehog (series) and List of games featuring Sonic the Hedgehog

Sonic’s first appearance in the video game world was in the platform game Sonic the Hedgehog (sometimes referred to simply as Sonic 1) for the Sega Mega Drive/Genesis, which also introduced his nemesis Dr. Robotnik (more commonly known as Dr. Eggman). His two-tailed fox friend Miles “Tails” Prower joined him in the game’s 1992 sequel Sonic 2. Sonic CD, released in 1993, introduced Sonic’s self-proclaimed girlfriend Amy Rose and his robotic doppelgänger Metal Sonic (not to be confused with Mecha Sonic, an alternate model made later by Dr. Robotnik) as Sonic traveled through time to ensure a good future for the world. Sonic the Hedgehog 3 and its direct sequel Sonic & Knuckles, both released in 1994, saw Sonic and Tails battle Dr. Robotnik again, with the additional threat of Knuckles the Echidna, tricked by Robotnik into thinking Sonic was a threat to his home.

Other two-dimensional platformers starring Sonic include Sonic Chaos (1993), Sonic Triple Trouble (1994), Sonic Blast (1996), Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure (1999), Sonic Advance in (2001), Sonic Advance 2 (2002), Sonic Advance 3 (2004), Sonic Rush (2005), and Sonic Rush Adventure (2007).

Sonic Adventure (1998/1999) was Sonic Team’s return to the character for a major game. It featured Sonic returning from vacation to find the city of Station Square under attack by a new, very powerful foe named Chaos, under the control of Dr. Eggman. This was also the first Sonic game to have a complete voice-over. Sonic Adventure 2 (2001) placed Sonic on-the-run from the military (G.U.N) after being mistaken for a new enemy, Shadow the Hedgehog, the Ultimate Life Form. Sonic Heroes (2004) has Sonic teaming up with Tails and Knuckles (along with other characters) against the newly rebuilt Metal Sonic, who had betrayed his master. Sonic the Hedgehog (2006) features Sonic in the city of water, “Soleanna”, where he must rescue Princess Elise from Dr. Eggman while trying to avoid a new threat to his own life, Silver the Hedgehog. He is the only playable character in Sonic Unleashed (2008), in which he unwillingly gains a new personality, “Sonic the Werehog;” the result of Sonic being fused with Dark Gaia’s power. He gains incredible strength and flexibility in exchange for his speed.

Sonic and the Secret Rings (2007) features Sonic in a story book world of the “Arabian Nights”. A Nintendo Power cover scan was released spoiling a new Sonic game titled Sonic and the Black Knight. Soon after, Sega confirmed that it was in fact real and was going to be the second title in the Sonic Storybook spinoff series, making Sonic and the Secret Rings the first.

Sonic has also been featured in games of many genres other than 2D and 3D platform games. The first of these was a pinball game, Sonic Spinball (1993), which expanded upon the pinball sequences in the first three platform games. Then, more spin-offs appeared like: Sonic Labyrinth (1995) and Sonic 3D Blast (1996), the racing games Sonic Drift (1994), Sonic Drift 2 (1995), Sonic R (1996), Sonic Riders (2006), Sonic Rivals (2006), Sonic Rivals 2 (2007) and Sonic Riders: Zero Gravity (2008), the fighting games Sonic the Fighters (1996), Sonic Battle (2003), the mobile game Sonic Jump (2005) and has made an appearance in Super Smash Bros. Brawl (2008). Sonic is the first playable character in his first role-playing game Sonic Chronicles: The Dark Brotherhood (2008).

Video games such as Dr. Robotnik’s Mean Bean Machine (1993), Knuckles Chaotix (1995), Tails’ Skypatrol (1995), Tails Adventure (1995), and Shadow the Hedgehog (2005) starred supporting characters of the Sonic series, although Sonic himself cameos in most of these titles.

Non-Sonic appearances

Sonic has made many cameo appearances in different games. Most notably in other Sega games, such as being a power-up in Billy Hatcher and the Giant Egg, walking around the main hallway in Phantasy Star Universe on his birthday (June 23), and appearing in the 2008 remake of Samba De Amigo (he appears in the background for the songs “Low Rider”, “UN Aguardiants” and “Mambo #5”. He is also a playable character in Christmas NiGHTS into Dreams. Sonic has proved to be popular among other publishers as well, and he cameos in games like Donkey Kong Country 2: Diddy’s Kong Quest, Art Alive, Shining Force II, Clockwork Knight 2 (in footage from a concept video for the main hero of the game in the background while in a toy plane), Crusader of Centy and Rad Mobile. He appears as a playable character in Super Smash Bros. Brawl, being one of two third-party characters (the other being Solid Snake included in the game. Sonic cameos in the video game adaptation of the film Tom and Jerry: The Movie. He also appears on billboards around New York in the video game adaptation of The Incredible Hulk, which was produced by Sega. Sonic has also appeared in The Simpsons episodes, That 90’s Show and Marge Be Not Proud, as well as a brief, satirical appearance in The Simpsons Game. He has also appeared in the game Bug! during a bonus round where you appear to race him.

Animation
Sonic, as he appears in the anime series Sonic X.

Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog was the first animated series to feature Sonic, where he was voiced by Jaleel White.[18] It had a very comical take on Sonic and Tails’s adventures and battles against Robotnik. Pierre De Celles, an animator who worked on Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog, described the show as “fun and humorous.”[19]

In the darker and more serious series Sonic the Hedgehog, Sonic was again voiced by Jaleel White.[20] In this universe, he lives on Planet Mobius in Knothole Village, where he belongs to a band of Freedom Fighters that fight to free their world from the literally iron-fisted rule of the evil dictator Dr. Robotnik.

Sonic Underground featured the introductions of Sonic’s siblings Sonia the Hedgehog and Manic the Hedgehog, as well as his mother Queen Aleena, the four of whom were destined to defeat Robotnik and rule Mobius as the “Council of Four”. Jaleel White returned to voice Sonic for the third time as well as voicing Sonic’s siblings, with Samuel Vincent providing Sonic’s singing voice.[21]

Additionally, there was a Sonic the Hedgehog anime OVA in Japan, which featured Sonic, Tails, Robotnik, Knuckles and Metal Sonic. Sonic was voiced by Masami Kikuchi in Japan, and Martin Burke in the United States.[22]

Sonic X, was an anime in which Sonic is teleported to Earth by Chaos Control, caused by the Chaos Emeralds. In this series, he is voiced by Jun’ichi Kanemaru in the Japanese version, and by Jason Griffith in the English version.

Comics
Main article: List of Sonic the Hedgehog printed media

Sonic’s first comic appearance was in a promotional comic printed in Disney Adventures magazine (which was also given away as a free pull-out with a copy of “Mean Machines” magazine), which established an origin for Sonic involving the transformation of kindly scientist Doctor Ovi Kintobor into the evil Dr. Ivo Robotnik. Numerous British publications, including “Sega handbook” Stay Sonic (1993), four novels published by Virgin Books (1993–1994) and the comic book Sonic the Comic (1993–2001) used this premise as their basis.

The American comics published by Archie Comics, Sonic the Hedgehog (1993–), Sonic X (2005–2008) and Sonic Universe (2009-) are based on the settings established by earlier animated TV series, the ABC “SatAM” cartoon, the Sonic X anime and an expansion to the series respectively. The former series is currently the second longest-running licensed comic series in the history of American comic books, second only to Marvel’s Conan series (first issue released in 1970). In France two comic books named “Sonic Adventures” were published by Sirène in 1994.

Sonic has also been featured in two different manga. One series was simply called Sonic the Hedgehog, and featured a story about a normal boy named Nicky Parlouzer who can change into Sonic. The other series was a compilation of short stories and was separated into two volumes, the first being called Dash and Spin, and the other called Super Fast Sonic!!.

Characteristics
Super Sonic’s character design from Sonic Advance 3 onward.

According to various official materials from Sega, Sonic is described as a character who is “like the wind”:[23] a drifter who lives as he wants,[24] and makes life a series of events and adventures.[1] Sonic hates oppression and staunchly defends freedom.[25] Although he is mostly easy-going[24] he has a short temper[24] and is often impatient with slower things.[23] Sonic is a habitual daredevil who is honest, loyal to friends, keeps his promises,[1] and dislikes tears.[26] He took the young Tails under his wing like a little brother,[27] but appears to be uninterested in the marital proposals from Amy Rose.[28] In times of crisis, he focuses intensely on the challenge[23] as if his personality had undergone an astonishing change.[1]

Sonic is known as the world’s fastest hedgehog.[25] Sonic’s greatest strength is his running speed, which is faster than the speed of sound.[26] Many of his abilities are variations on the tendency for hedgehogs to roll into tight balls for protection with the addition of spinning his body. Since his introduction in 1991’s Sonic the Hedgehog, Sonic’s primary offensive maneuver is the basic “Spin Attack” (or “Sonic Spin Attack”).[29] Later games in the series expanded on this basic attack and two of these enhancements have become mainstays of his: the Spin Dash which was introduced in Sonic the Hedgehog 2 and involves Sonic spinning on the spot before blasting off at full speed,[30] and the Homing Attack, officially introduced in Sonic Adventure, in which Sonic dashes in midair toward a target.[25] However, Sonic’s weakness is that he can’t swim.[26]

When seven Chaos Emeralds are collected in most Sonic games, Sonic can initiate a super transformation into Super Sonic, a faster and invulnerable version of himself that can fly.[31] In the 2D games, he enters Super Sonic mode after collecting an additional 50 Rings; in the 3D games where Super Sonic is playable, he starts off in the form with additional 50 Rings. While transformed, Sonic slowly loses Rings during the time he is in the form and returns to normal when all Rings are used up; the player can collect more Rings during this time to keep him as Super Sonic.

Pokemon

Pokemon Party

Pokémon (???? ,Pokemon?, ejaan Inggris: [‘po?ke?m?n, ‘p?kim?n]) adalah salah satu media franchise yang dimiliki oleh perusahaan permainan video Nintendo dan diciptakan oleh Satoshi Tajiri pada 1995. Aslinya Pokémon adalah permainan permainan video yang identik dengan konsol Game Boy. Pokémon merupakan permainan video tersukses kedua di dunia setelah serial Mario yang juga diciptakan oleh Nintendo.[1] Sementara bila dibandingkan dengan yang lain, Pokémon merupakan franchise serial terlaris ketiga di dunia setelah James Bond (karya Ian Fleming) dan Transformers (karya Hasbro), yang masih terus berjalan dan di-update sesuai perjalanan zaman. Pokémon franchise sendiri muncul dalam beragam bentuk, yaitu anime, manga, trading cards, buku, mainan, dan masih banyak lagi. Media franchise ini merayakan ulang tahunnya yang ke sepuluh di tanggal 27 Februari 2006. Dan pada 23 April 2008, omzet penjualan permainan video Pokémon telah mencapai 180 juta kopi,[2]melebihi penjualan permainan video Transformers.

Nama Pokémon merupakan nama romanisasi dari nama Jepang “Pocket Monsters” (????????? ,Poketto Monsuta?).[3] Penyebutan “Pokémon” sudah merujuk pada 493 spesies fiksi yang muncul dalam semua seri Pokémon. Seperti kata deer dan sheep, penyebutan kata singular dan plural Pokémon dalam bahasa Inggris tidak ada bedanya. Kata Pokémon dalam bahasa Inggris bisa merujuk pada satu Pokémon saja atau lebih dari satu.

Di bulan November 2005, 4Kids Entertainment, yang menjadi distributor Pokémon di luar Jepang mengumumkan bahwa mereka tidak akan memperpanjang kontrak mereka dengan Pokémon Jepang. Sadar bahwa Pokémon Jepang tidak akan sukses bila tanpa bantuan rekan dari luar Jepang, Pokémon Jepang kemudian menciptakan anak perusahaan yang berbasis di Amerika. Perusahaan itu kemudian dikenal dengan nama Pokémon USA, Inc. Tugasnya adalah menjadi distributor sekaligus pemegang nama lisensi Pokémon untuk kawasan di luar Asia.[4]

Konsep awal
Ash Ketchum sebagai tokoh utama dalam serial TV Pokémon.

Konsep asli dari Pokémon, seperti yang muncul dalam permainan video dan semua fiksional Pokémon secara umum, adalah mengadopsi hobi mengoleksi serangga, dimana hal itu pernah dilakukan oleh Satoshi Tajiri sewaktu masih anak-anak.[5] Dalam permainan video, pemain disebut sebagai Pokémon Trainers. Dua tujuan umum setiap Pokémon Trainers adalah mengkomplitkan isi dari Pokédex dengan menangkap semua spesies Pokémon yang ada di sebuah region tempat Anda berada. Selanjutnya, Anda dituntut untuk mengembangkan spesies Pokémon yang Anda punya agar menjadi kuat dan kemudian bisa menang melawan penantang yang lain. Setelah itu Anda punya kesempatan besar untuk melawan Trainer terkuat, yang kemudian disebut Pokémon Master. Semua hal tersebut ada dalam seluruh seri Pokémon franchise, termasuk dalam permainan video, anime, manga, dan trading card.

Dalam mayoritas seri Pokémon, seorang Trainer yang dapat menghadang kekuatan Pokémon liar dapat menangkapnya untuk kemudian dijadikan peliharaannya sendiri dengan melemparkan sebuah benda yang bisa menciutkan massa jenis Pokémon tersebut, yang kemudian dinamakan Poké Ball. Dengan tertangkapnya Pokémon liar tersebut, maka sang Trainer secara resmi memiliki Pokémon liar tersebut. Pokémon yang dimiliki oleh orang lain tidak bisa direbut secara paksa dengan Poké Ball kecuali ada hal-hal lain yang menjadi persetujuan antara dua Trainer yang bertarung tersebut. Pokémon yang kita miliki untuk selanjutnya bisa kita pertarungkan dengan Pokémon liar atau dengan sesama Trainer. Bagi Pokémon yang menang dalam pertarungan tersebut, sudah barang tentu kekuatannya akan bertambah dan meningkat. Mereka mendapat poin experience, dan berkesempatan untuk naik ke level yang lebih tinggi jika waktunya tiba. Ketika mereka naik levelnya, secara otomatis statistiknya akan meningkat, seperti Attack, Speed, dam masih banyak lagi. Dari waktu ke waktu, sesuai level, Pokémon kemudian mengenal beberapa taktik serangan baru, yang bisa digunakan dalam pertarungan. Dalam beberapa kesempatan, ada sebagian besar jenis Pokémon yang bila mencapai level tertentu atau dengan memenuhi syarat yang lain seperti batu evolusi dan item tertentu, akan bermetamorfosis menjadi spesies baru, yang kemudian dikenal dengan nama evolusi.

Dalam serial permainan video, kita harus berperan sebagai Trainer yang membangun dan membesarkan sebuah tim Pokémon untuk mengalahkan beragam tipe Pokémon yang dimiliki oleh Trainer rival atau saingan kita, selain tentunya Pokémon liar. Layout game Pokémon kebanyakan adalah linear, dan mengelilingi sebuah region fiksi di dunia Pokémon (sebab planet Bumi versi dunia Pokémon berbeda dengan Bumi versi fiksi yang dipakai dalam beberapa serial seperti Transformers atau James Bond, yang menggambarkan dunia seperti saat ini). Di setiap game Pokémon, sudah berisi delapan spesialis Pokémon yang kemudian disebut sebagai Gym Leaders. Kita sebagai Trainer wajib mengalahkan Gym Leader jika ini mendapatkan lencana yang kemudian bisa kita pakai sebagai tanda masuk ke kejuaraan nasional Pokémon League. Dimana disana kita akan menantang empat sesepuh Pokémon yang kemudian disebut The Elite Four. Dan jika kita berhasil menang melawan The Elite Four, kita akan dibawa untuk menantang Juara Regional, dan jika kita berhasil menang melawan Juara Regional, maka kita akan disahkan sebagai Juara Nasional dan berhak menyandang nama Pokémon Master.

Permainan video
Generasi
Bulbasaur level 5 bertempur dengan Charmander level 5 dalam Pokémon Red and Blue.

Versi orisinil permainan Pokémon adalah sebuah RPG Jepang dengan beberapa elemen strategi, dan diciptakan oleh Satoshi Tajiri untuk Game Boy. Saat ini sudah banyak permainan video beserta sekuel dan remakenya (termasuk yang dirilis dalam versi Bahasa Inggris) yang beredar di pasaran. Berbeda dengan franchise game-game RPG yang lain yang banyak berubah-ubah detail permainannya. Pokémon sampai saat ini masih terus mempertahankan konsep orsinilnya. Dimana kita berperan sebagai seorang Trainer, dan kita harus bisa memenangkan gelar Pokémon Master. Semua property lisensi Pokémon terdaftar dan dimiliki oleh The Pokémon Company (kawasan Jepang dan Asia, termasuk Indonesia) dan The Pokémon USA, Inc. (untuk kawasan AS, Australia, Amerika Latin, dan Eropa, termasuk Afrika). Semua permainan video, anime, dan manga selalu diperbaharui oleh pihak Pokémon Company setiap waktu. Dan ini menjadikan Pokémon sebagai satu dari tiga franchise fiksi yang masih terus dikembangkan hingga saat ini selain Transformers dan James Bond.

Pokémon G1

Franchise game Pokémon generasi pertama adalah Pocket Monsters Aka and Midori (“Red” and “Green”, dalam versi bahasa Inggris) untuk Game Boy di Jepang.[6] Yang kemudian disempurnakan menjadi Pokémon Red dan Blue[7] untuk dirilis secara internasional. Game ini diluncurkan di AS pada 30 September 1998. Selanjutnya versi remake dari Red dan Blue dirilis dengan nama Pokémon Yellow: Special Pikachu Edition, dengan elemen warna untuk Game Boy Color dan game ini menggambarkan apa yang ada di serial TV Pokémon season satu. Generasi pertama Pokémon memperkenalkan 151 spesies (dari daftar National Pokédex, urutannya adalah dari Bulbasaur sampai Mew). Basis cerita permainan videonya seperti yang sudah diutarakan sebelumnya adalah kita harus berperan sebagai Trainer yang membangun dan membesarkan sebuah tim Pokémon untuk mengalahkan beragam tipe Pokémon yang dimiliki oleh Trainer rival atau saingan kita, selain tentunya Pokémon liar. Dan untuk selanjutnya kita harus bisa menjadi seorang Pokémon Master. Region pertama dalam Pokémon G1 adalah Kanto, yang lucunya sampai G2 dirilis, nama tersebut tidak pernah disebutkan dalam serial TV atau permainan video.

Pokémon G2

Generasi dua dari Pokémon dirilis pada pertengahan 2000 dengan diluncurkannya Pokémon Gold and Silver untuk Game Boy Color. Seperti versi sebelumnya, sebuah game remake dengan nama Pokémon Crystal diluncurkan kemudian. G2 Pokémon memuat 100 spesies baru Pokémon yang dimulai dari Chikorita dan diakhiri dengan Celebri, menambah total jumlah Pokémon menjadi 251 spesies. Region baru pun diperkenalkan, namanya Johto, dan merupakan tetangga dari Kanto. Game Pokémon G2 dirilis di Jepang pada Desember 2001 dan di 2002 untuk Eropa dan Amerika Utara.

Advanced Generation
May sebagai salah satu karakter utama dalam permainan video Pokémon Ruby dan Sapphire.

Generasi ketiga Pokémon dimulai tahun 2003 dengan dirilisnya Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire untuk Game Boy Advance dan dilanjutkan dengan dirilisnya remake versi G1 (Pokémon Red and Blue) dengan nama Pokémon FireRed and LeafGreen, versi remake untuk Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire berjudul ‘‘Pokémon Emerald’’. Dimana di versi ini, yang menjadi tokoh utamanya adalah anak perempuan bernama May (Haruka). Di G3, Pokémon yang ditambahkan adalah 135 spesies baru, dimulai dari Treecko dan diakhiri oleh Deoxys, sehingga menambah jumlahnya menjadi 386 jenis. Region di versi ini bernama Hoenn. Meskipun di G3 sudah banyak penyempurnaan dan penambahan hal-hal yang baru, tapi tetap saja para fans merasa kurang puas. Karena system siang-malam seperti di G2 dihilangkan, dan yang lebih parah, dalam game Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire, hanya 202 spesies Pokémon yang bisa ditangkap (dari total 386 spesies). Sisanya sama sekali tidak muncul, kecuali jika Anda bermain curang memakai kode cheat game shark.

Pokémon G4

Generasi keempat Pokémon dimulai di tahun 2006 dengan diluncurkannya Pokémon Diamond and Pearl untuk Nintendo DS. G4 mengambil setting cerita di region Sinnoh. Pokémon baru yang ditambahkan berjumlah 107 spesies (dimulai dari Turtwig dan diakhiri oleh Arceus), dan semakin menambah jumlah Pokémon hingga angka 493 jenis.[8] Sebagai perbandingan, jumlah anggota karakter fiksi Autobots dan Decepticons –plus Maximal dan Predacons- (jika digabungkan) dalam franchise Transformers masih berkisar di angka 300-an. Fitur baru diperkenalkan dalam versi Nintendo DS, yaitu dengan adanya touch screen, dan dengan perbaikan di bidang system pertarungan dan jurus. Selain itu, muncul kembali system siang-malam seperti di G2, dan tetap dipertahankannya Pokémon Contests yang kali ini berubah nama menjadi Super Contest. Versi remake dari Diamond and Pearl adalah Pokémon Platinum.

Pokémon starter

Aspek utama yang masih terus bertahan dari serial Pokémon versi game — tepatnya dari Pokémon Red and Blue dalam Nintendo Game Boy sampai Nintendo DS game, Pokémon Diamond and Pearl — adalah pemilihan satu dari tiga Pokémon berbeda dalam awal start petualangan kita ketika bermain permainan video Pokémon. Hal tersebut kemudian dikenal dengan nama starter Pokémon, dengan tiga jenis Pokémon yang berbeda. Kita dapat memilih Grass-type, Fire-type, atau Water-type.[9][10] Contohnya, di Pokémon Red and Blue (dan versi remake-nya, Pokémon FireRed and Pokémon LeafGreen), pemain dapat memilih Bulbasaur, Charmander, atau Squirtle. Pengecualian hanya untuk Pokémon Yellow (yang merupakan remake dari cerita di season satu Pokémon anime), dimana pemain diberikan seekor Pikachu, yang merupakan Pokémon bertipe listrik, dan merupakan mascot utama Pokémon franchise. Satu hal lain yang juga menjadi ciri khas adalah, rival kita selalu memilih Pokémon yang memiliki kemampuan yang hampir sama dengan Pokémon kita. Misalnya jika kita memilih Pokémon jenis tanaman, maka rival akan memilih jenis api, dan sebaliknya. Lagi-lagi pengecualian diberikan untuk Pokémon Yellow, dimana rival kita mendapatkan Eevee.

Pokédex

Pokédex adalah sebuah alat elektronik fiksi yang ada dalam semua seri permainan video dan anime Pokémon. Dalam game, jika seekor Pokémon tertangkap, maka data dari Pokémon tersebut akan masuk ke dalam Pokédex milik sang pemilik. Namun lain halnya dengan di anime atau manga, dimana di versi ini Pokédex adalah sebuah ensiklopedia elektronik lengkap yang bisa digunakan untuk mencari atau mendapatkan informasi tentang Pokémon yang kita temui. Pokédex biasanya digunakan untuk menyebutkan daftar Pokémon, atau lebih lengkapnya untuk menyebutkan daftar urut Pokémon sesuai nomor. Dalam permainan video, kita yang bermain sebagai Pokémon Trainer akan memulainya dengan Pokédex yang kosong ketika kita memulai petualangan. Untuk mengisinya, kita harus mengadakan pertarungan dengan Pokémon liar, atau kalau lebih bagus, kita harus menangkap Pokémon liar yang kita jumpai tersebut. Setelah kita berhasil mengalahkan atau menangkap Pokémon tersebut, kita akan menerima keterangan seperti gambar, nama, dan tempat habitat Pokémon tersebut dalam Pokédex.

Dalam Pokémon Red dan Blue, beberapa Pokémon malah bisa masuk ke daftar Pokédex tanpa harus mengalahkan mereka, tetapi cukup dengan melihat atau menjumpainya saja, seperti di kebun binatang dekat Safari Zone. Dalam perkembangannya, Pokédex kemudian member kita informasi lengkap tentang spesies, ukuran, berat badan, dan jurus-jurus yang Pokémon kita miliki. Bahkan Pokédex di Pokémon G3 sudah memuat daftar lengkap tentang habitan di mana Pokémon tersebut tinggal secara konfrehensif, seperti misalnya di gunung, kota, atau hutan.

Dalam media lain

Serial animasi
Misty sebagai salah satu karakter fiksi dari serial Pokemon.

Serial TV dan film teater Pokémon merupakan versi pengembangan dari seluruh seri permainan video Pokémon (dengan pengecualian untuk Pokémon Yellow, yang meretas jalan sebaliknya dari serial TV ke permainan video). Karakter utama dalam serial TV Pokémon adalah Ash Ketchum (alias Satoshi di versi Jepang).[11] Ia bersama rekan-rekannya saling bahu membahu dalam perjalanan. Rekan-rekan Ash adalah Brock (mantan leader dari Pewter City Gym), Misty (leader Cerulean City Gym), Tracey Sketchit, May (dari kota Petalburg), Max, dan Dawn. Musuh utama tim ini adalah Team Rocket yang dipimpin oleh Giovanni (Sakaki) dengan anak buahnya yang selalu mengikuti kemanapun Ash pergi yaitu Jessie (Musashi), James (Kojiro), dan Meowth (Nyasu).

Dalam serial Pokémon G1, Ash mendapatkan Pokémon Pikachu, berbeda dengan di permainan video Pokémon Red dan Blue, dimana yang ada adalah Bulbasaur, Charmander, dan Squirtle. Cerita di G1 mengambil tempat di Kanto. Ash kemudian mendapatkan teman bertualang yaitu Brock dan Misty. Sementara di G2 mengambil tempat di Johto, dan masih melanjutkan petualangan Ash, Misty, dan Brock. Selanjutnya, serial berlanjut dengan masuknya Ash ke Hoenn (Pokémon G3), dimana ia menjadi mentor dan guru bagi May. Di G2 dia juga berteman dengan adik May, Max. Posisi May dan Max adalah menggantikan Misty yang kembali lagi ke kota asalnya, yaitu Cerulean City.

Di Pokémon G4, Ash bersama Brock pergi ke Sinnoh, dimana di saat yang sama May bersama Max pergi ke Johto setelah sebelumnya ke Kanto untuk mengikuti kompetisi Battle Frontier. Ash di Sinnoh kemudian bertemu dengan teman baru bernama Dawn. Untuk mendukung cerita film, tim Pokémon Company juga telah mengeluarkan 11 film Pokémon (12 untuk Jepang) sampai Juli 2008.

Dalam serial animasi Pokémon terdapat banyak argumen dari fans mengenai kisah cinta dari Ash (Satoshi) ataupun karakter lainnya. Namun sampai sekarang belum terbukti bahwa Ash memiliki kekasih, walaupun ada beberapa bukti dalam episode Pokémon mengenai kisah cinta. Tapi tetap saja, tidak ada satu episode pun yang menyebutkan kalau karakter utama dalam Pokémon memiliki hubungan cinta.

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